Gujarat – Irrigation and Hydropower {PCS Exam Notes}


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Gujarat – Irrigation and Hydropower

 The industrial structure taking shape in Gujarat, modified farming methods and the possibility of power generation are increasing. Demand for water in Gujarat is increasing. Gujarat needs more irrigation. Because (1) About 70% of Gujarat is dependent on forestry. Although a large area of ​​the state is under cultivation, there is a shortage of food grains. (2) Seasonal wind rains of Netrantya in Gujarat. Due to its unpredictability and irregularity, it is important to avoid adverse effects on agriculture. (3) The period from Mobar to May in Gujarat is dry without rain. Nichai is required for cultivation at this time, (4) Kutch, Saurashtra and North Gujarat areas receive less rainfall than required. Hence the need for irrigation here, (5) Kiya is required for cultivation in summer season in South Gujarat. (6) Irrigation of paddy, cotton, groundnut, maize class crops is being explored.

 (1) Different methods of irrigation Irrigation in Gujarat is done by different methods as follows.

(1) Irrigation by wells and aquifers: Jugaard water resources are abundant in Gujarat. There are more wells in the Nileyakta plain area of ​​Central Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch. The highest number of wells in Gujarat is in Junagadh district, but most of the irrigation through wells is done in Mehsana district. There is a great deal of underground life in this region of new silt. Water can be easily obtained by digging wells here, at low altitudes. In Gujarat, abyssal water is widely used for irrigation. About two lakh hectares of land is irrigated by the abyss. Mehsana and Patan districts have the highest number of abyssal wells in Gujarat. Abyssal wells in Banas Kantha, Kheda, Anand, Ahmedabad, Gandhin, Vadodara, Bharuch and Kutch districts also abyssal wells in low rainfall region like Shri Banaskantha and Kutch. The depth is greater.

(ii) Irrigation through Lake, Weir and Endocrine Lakes: About 40 thousand hectares of land in Gujarat is irrigated through 2045 lakes. Most of the irrigation through the lake is done in Valsad district. Compared to other states in India, the development of irrigation through lakes in Gujarat is relatively low. Gujarat ranks twelfth in India in terms of lake irrigation.

Reservoirs are constructed on the temporary rivers of Gujarat. Dams are built on it to drain the spring water into the rocky ground. In the same way, inland ponds help in raising the ground water level by storing rain water during the monsoon season. 

 (ii) Irrigation by canals Canals are more suitable for irrigation in large areas. Irrigation is done through canals built on rivers. Gujarat ranks tenth in India in terms of canal irrigation.

Irrigation in Gujarat is done through wells, abyssal wells, lakes, dams (Weir) and World Inbox General in Gujarat. The highest irrigation through lakes occurs in Anand and Kheda districts. Most of the irrigation in Gujarat is done through wells. The highest number of wells in Gujarat is in Junagadh district and the highest proportion of irrigation through wells is in Mehsana district. From Mehsana). The first abyssal well was drilled, (Vadodara State in 1935. have the highest abyssal well in Gujarat in Surendranagar district. The highest irrigation through canals is in Surat district. The highest irrigated area in Gujarat is in Mehsana district and the least irrigated area is in Dang district.)  

Government of Gujarat Sardar Patel Sahabhagi Jalsanchay Yojana’ is working with public participation. 

Important Irrigation Schemes

 (1) Kakrapar Yojana and Ukai Yojana: 621 m long and 14 m high dam has been constructed near Kakrapar village of Surat district on Tapi river and 4928 m long and 69 m high dam has been constructed near Ukai village of Tapi district. The scheme provides irrigation benefits to 1.5 lakh hectares of land and generates 300 MW of hydropower.

(2) Wanakabori Yojana and Kadana Yojana: 796 m long and 21 m high dam has been constructed near Wanakbori village of Kheda district on Mahi river and 1430 m long and 58 m high dam has been constructed near Kadana village of Mahisagar district. The scheme irrigates 2.75 lakh hectares of land and generates 400 MW of hydropower.

 (3) Dharoi Project: 1211 m long (crops) and 5028 m long (raw) dams have been constructed near Dharoi village in Satlasan taluka of Mehsana district on Sabarmati river. The height of this dam is 4 meters. The scheme provides irrigation benefits to 82,700 hectares of land. A 583 meter long embankment has been constructed on the Sabarmati river near Vasana village in Ahmedabad known as ‘Vasana Barrage’. 

 (4) Dantiwada Project: A 325 meter long dam has been constructed near Dantiwada village in Banaskantha district on the river Banas. The scheme provides irrigation to 59,895 hectares of land.

 (5) Shetrunji Project: 770 m long (crops) and 2918 m long (cars) dams have been constructed on the river Shetrunji near Rajasthali village in Bhavnagar district. The height of this dam is 31 meters. The scheme benefits 57,060 hectares of land for irrigation.

 (6) Narmada Project: This dam has been constructed on the river Narmada 5.6 km upstream from Navagam in Narmada district. The construction of this dam with a length of 1210.02 meters up to 121.92 meters has been completed. The lake formed from this dam is named ‘Sarghar Sarovar’. The lake is about 205 km long and 16 km wide. The main canal of the project is 485 km long, 78 m wide and 16 m deep. From this main canal 2585 km long branch canal, 5 12 km long Vishakha canal, 18,413 km long branch canal and 48,058 km long sub branch canal have been constructed. There is a 1500 km long distributary on this canal. The project generates 1450 MW of hydropower. The scheme provides irrigation to 18 lakh hectares of land in Gujarat and 2.5 lakh hectares of land in Rajasthan and provides drinking water to 2 crore people of Gujarat and 15 lakh people of Rajasthan. The 66,000 km irrigation network of the project has been completed. Narmadabandh has developed into a scenic and scenic tourist destination. The scheme is beneficial for the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. 

On June 12, 2014, the Narmada Control Authority approved the installation of gates on the Sardar Sarovar Dam and increased the height of the dam from the existing 121.92 m to 138.68 m. As the height of the dam increases, 135 cities and 8315 villages of Gujarat and 2 cities and 1107 villages of Rajasthan will get drinking water facility. The dam has a storage capacity of 1.27 million acre feet at present. It will increase to 4.75 million acre feet. A steel radial gate 60 feet high and 66 feet wide will be placed at a height of 121.92 meters from the dam.

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