Climate of Gujarat
Climate of Gujarat is a region with seasonal climate. Due to the geographical location, shape and area of Gujarat, there are differences in the climate of different parts. Kutch, Patan and Banaskantha districts at the northern tip of Gujarat have deserts with hot and dry climate. At the southern end are Valsad, Navsari and Dang districts with very good rainfall. The coastal regions of Gujarat have a marine climate. The climate of the highlands in the central part of Saurashtra is heterogeneous.
According to the climate, Gujarat has four main seasons: (1) Winter, (2) Summer, (3) Rainy season and (4) Return seasonal winds.
During December to February, the temperature is low in most parts of Gujarat. This period of low temperatures is the culmination of winter. At this time the sun’s rays fall diagonally. The months of December and January are the coldest. In winter, the temperature in Gujarat increases slightly from north to south. Due to the narrow plains of South Gujarat, the sea waves reach the interior through river valleys and in some regions the temperature does not go down due to dense forests. In Saurashtra, the temperature decreases from the coast to the interior. But the daily interval of temperature is longer. When there is heavy snowfall in the Himalayas in winter, the cold air wave there returns to the whole of Gujarat and experiences severe cold. The temperature drops abruptly. At this time, where the minimum temperature of the night goes down, ‘snow’ falls. This damages the crop. Humidity is low almost everywhere in Gujarat as winter winds blow from the land to the sea. So it doesn’t rain in winter. Sometimes when the storm comes from the sea the sky becomes cloudy and the humidity in the air Gujarat increases. The weather becomes warm and sometimes even a little rain in some parts. It is called ‘Mavthu’. With the exception of two to five days of such weather, the winter climate in Gujarat remains healthy and pleasant.
Gujarat has a lot of diversity in terms of climate. Winter is the sun’s rays towards the equator. December-West-February is the main time of winter season in Gujarat due to the north-western diagonal. January is the coldest month of winter in Gujarat. That the winter equilibrium lines in Gujarat go from east to west. 3 Due to snowfall in the Himalayas and winds blowing from the northeast, there is a special drop in temperature in North Gujarat and Kutch. While in South Gujarat, the temperature is moderate in winter season. Gujarat has the lowest temperature recorded in Naliya of Kutch during winter. Nor does it rain in winter as the wind blows from the land to the sea in winter but the occasional non-seasonal rain in Gujarat is called ‘Mavthu’. 9
Gujarat’s winter is considered to be the healthiest season due to its dry climate.
During March to May, the temperature in Gujarat remains high. At this time the sun’s rays fall directly. May is the hottest month. This month has a consistently high temperature. Summers are relatively less hot in the coastal region. The daily temperature range is also shorter in the coastal region. In North Gujarat, sometimes ‘loo’ (hot wind) is also y. In summer, the sky is mostly cloudless. The humidity in the air is low. The atmosphere becomes dusty when the wind blows in a dry atmosphere. Gujarat’s summers are mostly hot and dry. Summer season is felt in Gujarat from March to May due to direct rays of the sun towards the equator. Gujarat has the highest temperature in the summer season in the month of May. Gujarat’s summers are hot and dry. Where the highest temperature is found in North Gujarat i.e. Deesa in Banaskantha district and Eder in Sabarkantha district.
(3) The monsoon season
is the period from June to September. Humidity in Gujarat increases due to southwest monsoon. The sky remains cloudy. Temperatures remain relatively lower during the rainy season than in summer. From the second or third week of June, the monsoon season begins with thunderstorms and wind storms almost everywhere in Gujarat. Most of the monsoon rains fall in July and August. The monsoon season ends mostly in September. Some areas of South Gujarat also receive light rainfall in October. Due to rains, rivers in Gujarat are flooded. Cyclones coming from the sea along with seasonal winds in the rainy season bring about a sudden change in the climate. It sometimes does a lot of damage. In Gujarat, the rainfall received by the monsoon winds has many irregularities and uncertainties, which sometimes lead to extremes or droughts. Sometimes it rains for seven to ten consecutive days. It’s called ‘Haley’.
Rainfall in Gujarat and its distribution: There are variations in rainfall in Gujarat. South Gujarat receives the highest rainfall. Dang, Valsad and Tapi districts receive 150 to 200 cm of rainfall. Rainfall decreases from south to north. The north-eastern highlands receive an average of 100 cm of rainfall. In the north, Patan, Banaskantha and Kutch districts receive less rainfall. Saurashtra receives less rainfall from west to east. The highest rainfall is in the hilly region of Girnar.
Gujarat has five divisions according to rainfall and distribution:
I) Hilly area east of Valsad, Dang, Navsari, Surat, Tapi and Chhota Udepur, Bharuch, Narmada and Vadodara district over 100 cm.
(ii) 80 to 100 cm: West area of Bharuch, Chhota Udepur, Narmada and Vadodara districts, hilly area of Dahod, Panchmahal, Anand, Mahisagar, Aravali, Gandhinagar, Kheda and Sabarkantha districts
(iii) 60 to 80 cm Till: Plains of Kheda, Anand, Panchmahal, Mahisagar, Aravali and Sabarkantha districts, Central and eastern part of Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar and Mehsana districts. Southern part of Bhavnagar district in Saurashtra
(iv) 40 to 60 cm: Most areas of Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Mehsana, Patan, Banaskantha and all districts of Saurashtra
(v) Less than 40 cm: West area of Banaskantha and Patan districts and coastal areas of Kutch district and desert
( 4) Returning seasonal winds: In the rainy season, southwest monsoon winds come from the sea to the land area of India. These winds return to the sea from the land area in October and November due to changing atmospheric pressure conditions. This is called the ‘period of change of seasons’. Atmospheric humidity decreases during this time. The heat of October has the opposite effect on people’s health.
Therefore, the incidence of epidemics increases in these cases. The temperature drops in the month of November. And feel cold.