THE CLIMATE OF INDIA
● India has tropical monsoon type
It is greatly influenced by the presence of
Himalayas in the North as they
block the cold air masses from Central Asia.
It is because of the Himalayas that the monsoon winds shed their water in India.
● The Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N) divides India into two almost equal climatic zones, namely, the Northern zone (sub-tropical) and the Southern zone (tropical).
● The sub-tropical climate of the Northern zone gives it cold winter season and hot summer season.
● The Southern tropical climate zone is warmer than the North and does not have a clear cut winter season.
The Southern zone has the midday Sun almost vertically overhead at least twice every year and the Northern zone does not have the midday Sun vertically overhead during any part of the year.
the Climate of India
The factors influencing the climate of India are as
● Location and Latitudinal extent The Tropic of
Cancer passes through the middle of the country.
The region to the South of Tropic of Cancer
experiences tropical climate, whereas the region to the North of the Tropic of Cancer experiences warm temperate climate.
● Distance from Sea The areas near to the sea
experience maritime climate, whereas the areas away from the sea experience continental climate.
● The Northern Mountain Range The Northern Himalayan range protects India from the bitterly
cold and dry winds of Central Asia during winter.
Moreover, it acts as a physical barrier for the rain bearing South-West monsoon.
● Physiography The physiography has great i impacton the major elements of climate such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, direction of wind and amount of rainfall.
● Monsoon Wind It is the most dominating factor of Indian climate. The South-West summer m monsoonfrom the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal bring rainfall to the entire country. Besides the North-East winter monsoon travelling from land to sea causes rainfall along the Coromandel coast after acquiring moisture f rom the Bay of Bengal.