India is essentially an agricultural land.
Two-thirds of its population still lives on
agriculture. Agriculture is a primary activity
which includes farming, animal rearing and
fishing. There are three crop seasons in
(i) Kharif Sown in June/July, harvested in
September/October. e.g. rice, jowar,
bajra, ragi, maize, cotton and jute.
(ii) Rabi Sown in October/December,
harvested in April/May e.g. wheat,
barley, peas, rapeseed, mustard,
(iii) Zaid They are raised between April
and June e.g. melon, watermelon,
cuccumber, toris, leafy and other
Types of Farming
● It is practised by the tribal groups in the
forest areas of Assam, Meghalaya,
Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram,
Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Madhya
Pradesh, Jharkhand and Andhra
Various Names of Shifting
States Names of Shifting
Andhra Pradesh and
Madhya Pradesh Bewar, Masha,
Penda and Bera
In this type of agriculture, a piece of forest
land is cleared mainly by tribal people by
felling and burning of trees and crops are
● Dry paddy, buck wheat, maize, small millets,
tobacco and sugarcane are the main crops
grown under this type of agriculture.
● This is a system of farming in which the
cultivator uses large amount of labour and
capital on a relatively small area.
● In regions, where the size of population is
big, but land is less, this type of farming is
● Agriculture is done with the help of manual
● This is a system of farming in which the
cultivator uses a limited amount of labour
and capital on a relatively large area.
● This type of agriculture is practised in
regions, where population size is small and
land is enough.
● Agriculture is done with the help of
It is a phrase generally used to describe the
spectacular increase in the production and
productivity of food grains that took place
The components of Green Revolution are as
● High Yielding Variety Seeds
● Use of Fertilizers
● Use of Insecticides and Pesticides
● Command Area Development
● Consolidation of Holdings
● Land Reforms
● Supply of Agricultural Credit
● Rural Electrification
● Rural Roads and Marketing
● Farm Mechanisation
● Agricultural Universities
Impact of Green Revolution
● Increase in agricultural production
● Reduction of the import of foodgrains
● Capitalist farming
● Industrial growth
● Rural employment
● Inter-crop imbalance
● Environmental impacts
● Increase in regional imbalances
● Unemployment due to mechanisation
● Negligence of other crops
Industries in India
n The first modern Cotton textile mill was established in Bombay in 1854 by
CN Dewar with the name of Bombay spinning and weaving company.
n Mumbai is called Cottonopolis of India.
n Ahmedabad is called Manchester of India.
n Coimbatore is called Manchester of South India.
n Kanpur is called Manchester of Uttar Pradesh.
n Distribution Maharashtra (Mumbai, Solapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Satara,
Wardha, Aurangabad and Amravati), Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Vadodra,
Rajkot, Surat, Bhavnagar, Porbandar, Morbi and Viramgam), Tamil Nadu
(Chennai, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Tuticorin, Salem, Virudhnagar and
Tiruchripalli and Perambur), Karnataka (Bengaluru, Belgaum, Mangalore,
Chitradurga, Gulbaraga and Mysore),
Uttar Pradesh (Kanpur, Etawah, Modinagar, Moradabad, Bareilly, Agra,
Meerut and Varanasi), Madhya Pradesh (Indore, Gwalior, Ujjain, Bhopal),
Rajasthan (Kota, Jaipur, Sriganganagar, Bhilwara and Udaipur).
n The first Woollen textiles mill was set-up in 1876 at Kanpur. Jammu and
Punjab leads in the production of woollen textiles. Kashmir is the large
producer of handloom and powerloom product.
n Distribution Punjab (Dhariwal, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ferozpur),
Maharashtra (Mumbai), Uttar Pradesh (Kanpur, Mirzapur, Agra,
n First modern Jute mill was set-up in 1855 at Rishra near Kolkata. India is
the second largest producer of raw jute and jute goods, whereas it is
second largest exporter of jute goods after Bangladesh.
n Distribution West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Odisha, Tripura
n India is the second largest prouducer of natural silk, after China and is
the only country producing all four varieties or natural silk viz Mulberry,
Tasar, Eri and Muga of which Golden yellow Muga silk is unique in India.
n Distribution Karnataka is the leading producer followed by West Bengal,
Bihar and Jammu and Kashmir etc.
n The first factory of synthetic rubber was set-up at Bareilly.
n Distribution Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh), Baroda (Gujarat) Synthetic Rubber
Units-Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Amritsar-Reclaimed Rubber Units.
Tea Industry n Tea cultivation in India was first started in the mid-19th century in
Darjeeling, Assam and Nilgiris.
n Nearly 98% of the tea production comes from Assam, West Bengal, Tamil
Nadu and Kerala, while the rest of it comes from Karnataka, Terai regions
of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and
n Uttar Pradesh is the leading producer of sugar.
Distribution Uttar Pradesh (Gorakhpur, Deoria, Basti, Gonda, Meerut,
Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bijnor and Moradabad), Bihar (Darbhanga,
Saran, Champaran and Muzaffarpur), Punjab (Phagwara and Dhuri)
Haryana (Ambala, Rohtak and Panipat), Maharashtra (Nashik, Pune,
Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur and Sholapur) and Karnataka (Munirabad,
Shivamogga and Mandya).
n The first Paper mill in the country was set-up near Chennai (1817) and
then at Serampore (Bengal) in 1832, both of which failed. In 1870, a
successful venture was started at Ballygunj near Calcutta. It was named
as the Royal Bengal Paper Mills.
n Raw material : Bamboo (70%), Salai wood (12%), Sabai (9%), Bagasses
(4%) and Waste paper and Rags (5%).
n Distribution Madhya Pradesh (Nepanagar), Hindustan Paper
Corporation, Vellore, Mysore Paper mill, Bhadravati, Maharashtra,
(Mumbai, Pune, Ballarpur and Kamptee produce Paper and Vikhroli),
Andhra Pradesh (Rajahmundry and Sirpur), Madhya Pradesh (Indore,
Bhopal and Shahdol), Karnataka.
Iron and Steel n Distribution Bhadrawati (Karnataka), Jamshedpur (Jharkhand),
Durgapur, Burnpur (West Bengal), Bokaro (Jharkhand), Rourkela
(Odisha), Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), Salem (Tamil Nadu) and Visakhapatnam
Ship Building n Distribution Cochin Shipyard , Mumbai (Mazgaon Dock), Hindustan
Shipyard at Visakhapatnam and Kolkata (Hooghly Docks and Port
Engineer). Mazgaon dock at Mumbai builts Vessels for Indian Navy.
Distribution Hindustan Aeronautics India Limited was formed by merging
two aricraft factories at Bengaluru and Kanpur. Four other factories are at
Nashik, Lucknow, Koraput (Odisha) and Hyderabad.
The Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCI) was set-up in 1961.
National Fertilizer Limited (NFL) was set-up in 1974.
Distribution Sindri (Bihar), Nangal (Punjab), Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh), Durgapur (West Bengal), Namrup (Assam), Cochin (Kerala), Rourkela (Chhattisgarh), Neyveli (Tamil Nadu), Vadodra (Gujarat), Kanpur, Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh), Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) and Kota (Rajasthan).
Machine Tool Industry
It forms the basis for the manufacturing of industrial, defence
equipments, automobiles, railway engines and electrical machinery.
Distribution Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Pinjore (Haryana), Kalamassery
(Kerala), Ajmer and Srinagar.
n Distribution Bengaluru, Bhopal, Jammu, Tiruchirapalli,
Ramchandrapuram (Hyderabad) and Haridwar.
Photo Films Industry
The Hindustan Photo Films Manufacturing Company at Udagamandalam (Tamil Nadu) is the only factory in the public sector, producing photo paper and films.
Distribution Uttar Pradesh (Firozabad, Balijoi, Hathras, Naini, Secunderabad, Maharashtra (Mumbai, Telogaon (Pune), Kolhapur, Tamil Nadu (Salem, Chennai and Coimbatore) and Karnataka (Belgaum, Bengaluru).