India Agriculture, Information about Agriculture


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India Agriculture

India is essentially an agricultural land.

Two-thirds of its population still lives on

agriculture. Agriculture is a primary activity

which includes farming, animal rearing and

fishing. There are three crop seasons in


(i) Kharif Sown in June/July, harvested in

September/October. e.g. rice, jowar,

bajra, ragi, maize, cotton and jute.

(ii) Rabi Sown in October/December,

harvested in April/May e.g. wheat,

barley, peas, rapeseed, mustard,


(iii) Zaid They are raised between April

and June e.g. melon, watermelon,

cuccumber, toris, leafy and other


Types of Farming

Shifting Agriculture

● It is practised by the tribal groups in the

forest areas of Assam, Meghalaya,

Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram,

Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Madhya

Pradesh, Jharkhand and Andhra


Various Names of Shifting


States Names of Shifting


Assam Jhum

Kerala Ponam

Andhra Pradesh and



Madhya Pradesh Bewar, Masha,

Penda and Bera

In this type of agriculture, a piece of forest

land is cleared mainly by tribal people by

felling and burning of trees and crops are


● Dry paddy, buck wheat, maize, small millets,

tobacco and sugarcane are the main crops

grown under this type of agriculture.

Intensive Farming

● This is a system of farming in which the

cultivator uses large amount of labour and

capital on a relatively small area.

● In regions, where the size of population is

big, but land is less, this type of farming is


● Agriculture is done with the help of manual


Extensive Farming

● This is a system of farming in which the

cultivator uses a limited amount of labour

and capital on a relatively large area.

● This type of agriculture is practised in

regions, where population size is small and

land is enough.

● Agriculture is done with the help of


Green Revolution

It is a phrase generally used to describe the

spectacular increase in the production and

productivity of food grains that took place

during 1970s.

The components of Green Revolution are as


● High Yielding Variety Seeds

● Irrigation

● Use of Fertilizers

● Use of Insecticides and Pesticides

● Command Area Development

● Consolidation of Holdings

● Land Reforms

● Supply of Agricultural Credit

● Rural Electrification

● Rural Roads and Marketing

● Farm Mechanisation

● Agricultural Universities

Impact of Green Revolution

Positive Impact

● Increase in agricultural production

● Reduction of the import of foodgrains

● Capitalist farming

● Industrial growth

● Rural employment

Negative Impact

● Inter-crop imbalance

● Environmental impacts

● Increase in regional imbalances

● Unemployment due to mechanisation

● Negligence of other crops

Industries in India

Industries Details

Cotton Textile


n The first modern Cotton textile mill was established in Bombay in 1854 by

CN Dewar with the name of Bombay spinning and weaving company.

n Mumbai is called Cottonopolis of India.

n Ahmedabad is called Manchester of India.

n Coimbatore is called Manchester of South India.

n Kanpur is called Manchester of Uttar Pradesh.

n Distribution Maharashtra (Mumbai, Solapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Satara,

Wardha, Aurangabad and Amravati), Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Vadodra,

Rajkot, Surat, Bhavnagar, Porbandar, Morbi and Viramgam), Tamil Nadu

(Chennai, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Tuticorin, Salem, Virudhnagar and

Tiruchripalli and Perambur), Karnataka (Bengaluru, Belgaum, Mangalore,

Chitradurga, Gulbaraga and Mysore),

Uttar Pradesh (Kanpur, Etawah, Modinagar, Moradabad, Bareilly, Agra,

Meerut and Varanasi), Madhya Pradesh (Indore, Gwalior, Ujjain, Bhopal),

Rajasthan (Kota, Jaipur, Sriganganagar, Bhilwara and Udaipur).




n The first Woollen textiles mill was set-up in 1876 at Kanpur. Jammu and

Punjab leads in the production of woollen textiles. Kashmir is the large

producer of handloom and powerloom product.

n Distribution Punjab (Dhariwal, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ferozpur),

Maharashtra (Mumbai), Uttar Pradesh (Kanpur, Mirzapur, Agra,


Jute Textile


n First modern Jute mill was set-up in 1855 at Rishra near Kolkata. India is

the second largest producer of raw jute and jute goods, whereas it is

second largest exporter of jute goods after Bangladesh.

n Distribution West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Odisha, Tripura

and Chhattisgarh.

Silk Textile


n India is the second largest prouducer of natural silk, after China and is

the only country producing all four varieties or natural silk viz Mulberry,

Tasar, Eri and Muga of which Golden yellow Muga silk is unique in India.

n Distribution Karnataka is the leading producer followed by West Bengal,

Bihar and Jammu and Kashmir etc.



n The first factory of synthetic rubber was set-up at Bareilly.

n Distribution Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh), Baroda (Gujarat) Synthetic Rubber

Units-Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Amritsar-Reclaimed Rubber Units.

Tea Industry n Tea cultivation in India was first started in the mid-19th century in

Darjeeling, Assam and Nilgiris.

n Nearly 98% of the tea production comes from Assam, West Bengal, Tamil

Nadu and Kerala, while the rest of it comes from Karnataka, Terai regions

of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and 




n Uttar Pradesh is the leading producer of sugar.

Distribution Uttar Pradesh (Gorakhpur, Deoria, Basti, Gonda, Meerut,

Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bijnor and Moradabad), Bihar (Darbhanga,

Saran, Champaran and Muzaffarpur), Punjab (Phagwara and Dhuri)

Haryana (Ambala, Rohtak and Panipat), Maharashtra (Nashik, Pune,

Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur and Sholapur) and Karnataka (Munirabad,

Shivamogga and Mandya).



n The first Paper mill in the country was set-up near Chennai (1817) and

then at Serampore (Bengal) in 1832, both of which failed. In 1870, a

successful venture was started at Ballygunj near Calcutta. It was named

as the Royal Bengal Paper Mills.

n Raw material : Bamboo (70%), Salai wood (12%), Sabai (9%), Bagasses

(4%) and Waste paper and Rags (5%).

n Distribution Madhya Pradesh (Nepanagar), Hindustan Paper

Corporation, Vellore, Mysore Paper mill, Bhadravati, Maharashtra,

(Mumbai, Pune, Ballarpur and Kamptee produce Paper and Vikhroli),

Andhra Pradesh (Rajahmundry and Sirpur), Madhya Pradesh (Indore,

Bhopal and Shahdol), Karnataka.

Iron and Steel n Distribution Bhadrawati (Karnataka), Jamshedpur (Jharkhand),

Durgapur, Burnpur (West Bengal), Bokaro (Jharkhand), Rourkela

(Odisha), Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), Salem (Tamil Nadu) and Visakhapatnam

(Andhra Pradesh).

Ship Building n Distribution Cochin Shipyard , Mumbai (Mazgaon Dock), Hindustan

Shipyard at Visakhapatnam and Kolkata (Hooghly Docks and Port

Engineer). Mazgaon dock at Mumbai builts Vessels for Indian Navy.

Aircraft Industry 

 Distribution Hindustan Aeronautics India Limited was formed by merging

two aricraft factories at Bengaluru and Kanpur. Four other factories are at

Nashik, Lucknow, Koraput (Odisha) and Hyderabad.

Fertilizer Industry 

 The Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCI) was set-up in 1961.

 National Fertilizer Limited (NFL) was set-up in 1974.

 Distribution Sindri (Bihar), Nangal (Punjab), Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh), Durgapur (West Bengal), Namrup (Assam), Cochin (Kerala), Rourkela (Chhattisgarh), Neyveli (Tamil Nadu), Vadodra (Gujarat), Kanpur, Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh), Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) and Kota (Rajasthan). 

Machine Tool Industry 

 It forms the basis for the manufacturing of industrial, defence

equipments, automobiles, railway engines and electrical machinery.

 Distribution Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Pinjore (Haryana), Kalamassery 

(Kerala), Ajmer and Srinagar.




n Distribution Bengaluru, Bhopal, Jammu, Tiruchirapalli,

Ramchandrapuram (Hyderabad) and Haridwar.

Photo Films Industry 

 The Hindustan Photo Films Manufacturing Company at Udagamandalam (Tamil Nadu) is the only factory in the public sector, producing photo paper and films. 

Glass Industry 

Distribution Uttar Pradesh (Firozabad, Balijoi, Hathras, Naini, Secunderabad, Maharashtra (Mumbai, Telogaon (Pune), Kolhapur, Tamil Nadu (Salem, Chennai and Coimbatore) and Karnataka (Belgaum, Bengaluru).

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