volcanoes in italy
Active volcanoes in italy
The word volcano comes from the Roman god of fire, Vulcan. The largest volcano on Earth is Hawaii’s Mauna Loa. Volcanoes that erupt regularly are called active. Dormant volcanoes are those that are not currently active. Extinct volcanoes are those that are unlikely to erupt again.
1.Yellowstone Caldera volcano
Yellowstone Caldera volcano is at least 2 million years old and has been dormant for approximately 640,000 years. There are more than 500 active volcanoes in the world. Mount Etna is thought to be the oldest active volcano in the world. Lava When magma erupts through the planet’s surface it is called lava. Magma Magma is molten rock within the planet’s crust.
A volcano is a geological landform, usually in the shape of a mountain. It forms the opening in Earth’s surface through which molten lava and gases erupt. Volcanoes are of three types: active, dormant, and extinct.
Mount Vesuvius, Mauna Loa, and Mount Unzen are examples of volcanoes.
Beneath the Earth flows molten rock known as magma. When a volcano erupts, the resulting explosion shoots this magma out into the atmosphere. At this point the magma becomes known as lava. There is no major difference between magma and lava; the terms merely distinguish whether the molten rock is beneath or above the surface.
Caused by gas pressure under the surface of the Earth, a giant volcanic eruption can be incredibly powerful with lava shooting up to 600 metres (2,000 feet) into the air. Lava can reach temperatures of 700-1,200°C (1,300-2,200°F) and varies in colour from bright orange to brownish red, hottest to coldest, respectively.
This viscous liquid can range from the consistency of syrup to extremely stiff, with little or no flow apparent. This is regulated by the amount of silica in the lava, with higher levels of the mineral resulting in a higher viscosity. When lava eventually cools and solidifies it forms igneous rock.
Inside lava are volcanic gases in the form of bubbles, which develop underground inside the magma. When the lava erupts from inside the volcano, it is full of a slush of crystalline minerals (such as olivine). Upon exposure to air the liquid freezes and forms volcanic glass.
Different types of lava have different chemical compositions, but most have a high percentage of silicon and oxygen in addition to smaller amounts of elements such as magnesium, calcium and iron.
The tallest and by far the largest active volcano in Europe, with a long history of major, often spectacular eruptions.
This cave under Etna’s southeastern flank is a lava tube—a natural tunnel within a solidified former lava flow. Fiery magma once flowed through it. Occupying 459 square miles (1,190 square km) of eastern Sicily, Mount Etna is one of the world’s largest, most famous, and most active volcanoes.
Towering above Catania, it has one of the world’s longest documented records of volcanic activity, dating back to 1500 BCE.
Etna’s origins are probably connected to it being close to the boundary between the African and Eurasian Plates; it may also lie over a mantle hotspot.
Etna is a stratovolcano, with a complex structure that includes four separate summit craters—and more than 300 smaller parasitic volcanic vents and cones on its flanks. Its summit is at 10,925ft (3,330m), and lava flows cover much of the surface of its flanks. Although Etna has an overall conical shape, there is a deep and prominent horseshoe-shaped depression on its eastern side, known as the Valle del Bove. Eruption types Over the past several thousand years, Etna has been almost continuously active, producing eruptions of two main types.
Spectacular explosive eruptions flare up from one or more of its summit craters. These can produce tall fountains of fiery lava, volcanic bombs, cinder showers, and large ash clouds. Quieter eruptions, with large-scale outpourings of lava, also emerge from flank vents and fissures. Etna’s most destructive eruption occurred in March 1669. It produced massive lava flows that destroyed most of Catania’s city walls. Despite the danger it poses, most of the inhabitants of Sicily regard Etna as a major asset.
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Stromboli is one of the few places on Earth that anyone can visit, on any day, with a high likelihood of being able to witness a volcanic eruption.
Around every 20 minutes, one of its three summit vents blasts a fountain of lava fragments up to a height of 490 ft (150m).
These eruptions have been occurring for several thousand years and are so distinctive that geologists use the term Strombolian to describe similar eruptive activity at other volcanoes. Visiting Stromboli Roughly 3 miles (5km) in diameter and 3,032ft (924m) high, Stromboli lies north of Sicily in the Mediterranean.
A hike to the summit is permitted only in the company of a local guide. The eruptions can also be viewed from a boat off the island’s northwest coast.
- Vesuvius has a steep cone, with a height of 4,203ft (1,281m), and sits within the caldera of an older volcano called Mount Somma.
Vesuvius is a stratovolcano that lies just 5 miles (8km) away from the Italian city of Naples, in the most densely populated volcanic area in the world. Its location and its capacity for especially violent eruptions are what make it so dangerous.
Its lower slopes are dotted with villages and vineyards. Destructive past Of Vesuvius’s numerous large historic eruptions, the most infamous occurred in 79 CE. During the explosion, falls of volcanic ash and pyroclastic surges buried the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, killing about 2,100 people. Another enormous volcanic blast in 1631 killed more than 3,000 people, while an eruption in 1906 killed more than 200. There has been no eruption since 1944, suggesting that a large explosion is overdue.
Plans have been drawn up for an evacuation in the event of warning signs, such as increased seismic activity.